4 M’s of Age-Friendly Care¶
Endorsed by the IHI to provide best evidence-based care to older patients across all settings of care:
- What **M**atters Most: Understand each patients specific healthcare goals in the short and long term. Ask “what matters most” and align the care plan with what matters.
- **M**edication: Aim to reduce adverse drug events in the elderly by thorough med rec and avoiding potentially inappropriate medications (e.g. Beers Criteria) when possible
- **M**entation: Identify, treat, and manage dementia, depression, and delirium across various settings of care.
- **M**obility: Assess and optimize mobility
Vanderbilt’s FACETS Inpatient Geriatrics Curriculum: https://sites.google.com/view/facetscourse
Physiological Changes with Aging¶
- Cardiovascular: Decreased vascular compliance and increased stiffness (intimal thickening). Decreased cardiac output. Maximum achievable HR decreases. Increase in systolic BP with decrease in diastolic BP (wider PP).
- Endocrine/Immune: Impairment of glucose tolerance (insulin resistance). Decreased sympathetic response to stress. Impairment of T-cell immunity and increased susceptibility to infection.
- Gastrointestinal: Decreased GI absorption, gastric emptying, motility, acid secretion, and hepatic blood flow. Reduced appetite and alterations of taste and smell.
- Musculoskeletal: Decreased bone density, muscle mass and strength. Increased fracture risk.
- Neurologic: Reduced cortical volume. Blunted vision, auditory function, and vibrotactile sensation. Decreased autonomic neural response. Slowed cognition and reflexes.
- Pulmonary: Increased chest wall rigidity. Decreased respiratory muscle strength. Decreased FEV1; FVC. Diminished ventilatory response to hypercapnia and hypoxia.
- Renal: Increased glomerulosclerosis. Decreased GFR and renal clearance of drugs/metabolites (↓ 1mL/min per year after age 40; Cr may stay the same due to reduced muscle mass). Reduced tubular function.
Last update: 2022-06-13 17:47:24